View of the original rampart between the Sacred Gate and the Dipylon. Kerameikos. Athens. Greece. The ancient city walls at Kerameikos that once surrounded the city of Athens were built as part of the fortification plan by Athenian ruler Themistokles in 478 BC. Serving as a burial ground as long ago as the 12th century BC, Kerameikos located in the ancient neighbourhood of potters contains part of the ancient city walls and the Dipylon, the main gate of Ancient Athens at a junction of the Sacred Way and Panathenaic Way. It served as a burial ground for the richest and most distinguished citizens of the city.